Pollution control considerations for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification processes Download PDF EPUB FB2
The complete report, entitled "Pollution Control Considerations for Low- and Medium-Btu Coal Gasification Processes," (Order No.
PB /AS; Cost: $) will be available only from: National Technical Information Service Port Royal Road Springfield, VA Telephone: The EPA Project Officer can be contacted at: Air. Get this from a library. Pollution control considerations for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification processes: project summary.
[W E Corbett; Lynn M Erickson; N P Meserole; Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory.]. The report is a compilation of environmental characterization data for wastewaters from low- and medium-Btu coal-gasification facilities. Fixed-bed, entrained-bed, and ash-agglomerating fluidized-bed coal-gasification processes were examined.
The fixed-bed gasifiers are. TECHNICAL OBJECTIVES The overall technical objectives of the low/medium-Btu gasification environmental assessment program are 1) to perform a comprehensive multimedia environmental assessment of coal gasifi- cation processes which produce, and end-use options which consume, low/medium- Btu gases, and 2) to define the control techniques which will have to be applied to.
Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground‐water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after by: 7.
SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES j£RL-RTP task officer is William J. Rhodes, Mail D / 6. ABSTRACT The report gives an overview of low- and medium-Btu gasification sys- tems. It describes systems or combinations of processes which are likely to be used for production of low- and medium-Btu gas from coal.
filtered out when coal is transformed from a solin into a gas, alleviating many of the environmental concerns of coal-fired power plants.
In fact, gasifying coal is one of the best ways to clean pollutants out of coal, and many experts predict that coal gasification will be the heart of clean coal technology for the next several decades. In many ways, coal gasification processes have been tailored to adapt to the different types of coal feedstocks available.
Gasification technology is presented from a historical perspective. Coal and air pollution. When coal burns, the chemical bonds holding its carbon atoms in place are broken, releasing energy.
However, other chemical reactions also occur, many of which carry toxic airborne pollutants and heavy metals into the environment. This air pollution includes. This book approaches coal gasification and related technologies from a process engineering point of view, with topics chosen to aid the process engineer who is interested in a complete, coal-to-products system.
It provides a perspective for engineers and scientists who analyze and improve components of coal conversion processes. Various sulfur control strategies have been developed to meet existing federal regulations and potential future legislation.
These include coal washing (physical cleaning), switching to low-sulfur coal, fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification combined cycle, and flue gas desulfurization.
Topics of discussion include coal gasification chemistry, low and medium Btu gasification processes, and high Btu gasification processes. Information is also included on solar gasification. PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT This document deals specifically with low/medium-Btu gasification and utilization technology; its purpose is to pre- sent a description of: the processes which can be used to produce low/medium-Btu gas from coal, the constraints imposed upon those processes by the intended end uses of the product gas, the air.
With coal at $20 per ton (80 cents per million BTU) the low-sulfur, low-ash coal would cost (in dollars) in the range of $–$ per million BTU. A number of other coal liquefaction processes are under study but they are either being tested on a smaller. Possible pollution control measures regarding UCG include identifying a permanently, unsuitable zone, setting a hydraulic barrier and pumping contaminated water out for surface disposal.
Mitigation measures during gasification processes and groundwater remediation after gasification are also proposed. The gasification processes will be treated in more detail in section 2 and the liquefaction processes in section 3.
At present, only gasification processes have been utilized on a large-scale and are operating commercially. Gasification. Gasification is a well-known technique of coal conversion. The coal gasification processes, including aspects of technical procedure and economic factors, are outlined.
Topics of discussion include coal gasification chemistry, low and medium btu gasification processes, and high btu gasification processes. Information also is included on solar gasification processes and pollution control techniques.
Coal gasification is the process of producing syngas—a mixture consisting primarily of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H 2), carbon dioxide (CO 2), natural gas (CH 4), and water vapour (H 2 O)—from coal and water, air and/or oxygen. Historically, coal was gasified to produce coal gas, also known as "town gas".Coal gas is combustible and was used for heating and municipal lighting, before.
ous coal and, ultimately, to hard coal (anthracite). Although coal has been wide ly used as a fuel for centuries (notably, ho wever, King Edward I of England in. Gasification-based processes for power production characteristically result in much lower emissions of pollutants compared to conventional coal combustion.
This can be traced to the fundamental difference between gasification and combustion: in combustion, air and fuel are mixed, combusted and then exhausted at near atmospheric pressure, while in gasification oxygen is normally supplied to the. The processes applied to control air pollution from coal combustion also create potentially harmful residues (e.g., the removal of SO 2 from flue gases generates wastes containing sulfur compounds).
Appropriate management of these residues can minimize their potential for negative effects (e.g., sludge can be dewatered by evaporation in lined. Zheng, J. Yan, in The Coal Handbook: Towards Cleaner Production: Coal Utilisation, History and market share of thermal coal utilization.
Thermal coal utilization is defined in this chapter as the use of coal for the production of electricity and heat with relatively large-scale, high capacity facilities. Thermal coal utilization can be classified by conversion technology.
A list of low and medium Btu coal gasification processes is presented in Table 1 and detailed descriptions of the processes are contained in Howard- Smith (). In addition to the difference in the quality (heat content) of product gas, coal gasification processes also may differ in the type of reactor vessel.
Three general categories are. AIR POLLUTION Emissions ofAir Pollutants Although the major sources of air pollution from coal utilization are the combustion and conversion processes, cleaning systems produce some form of pollution too, which, however.
is amenable to effective control. Potential air pollutants associated with. Benefits of gasification: Transporting gas is a lot cheaper than transporting coal. Help address local pollution problems. Has greater efficiency than conventional coal-burning because it can effectively use the gases twice: the coal gases are first cleansed of impurities and fired in a turbine to generate electricity.
The advantage of this process is that methane can be produced directly from coal in one process phase with very low heat demand (Nahas, ). Download: Download full-size image; FIG. Schematic diagram of the Exxon catalytic coal gasification process showing recycle of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (Nahas, ).
Coal properties and gasification performance. Tools for gasification performance assessment. Gasification as a route to efficient carbon capture. Chapter Value-in-use (VIU) assessment for thermal and metallurgical coal. Abstract: Introduction. Metallurgical coal. Value-in-use (VIU) considerations relevant to coke.
The use of coal is required to help satisfy the world's energy needs. Yet coal is a difficult fossil fuel to consume efficiently and cleanly. We believe that its clean and efficient use can be increased through improved technology based on a thorough understanding of fundamental physical and chemical processes that occur during consumption.
Gasified coal fuel produced in an oxygen-blown entrained-flow coal gasifier, has a calorific value of 8–13 MJ/m 3 which is only 1/5–1/3 that of natural gas. However, the flame temperature of medium-Btu gasified coal fuel is higher than that of natural gas and so NO x production.
Coal Gasification Economics and Efficiency: A Comparison Study By David Fenton November 20th, Contents Purpose Conventional Basis Results IGCC Basis Results Comparisons Conclusions Purpose To compare conventional coal and IGCC power plants in the following aspects: Plant efficiency Pollution amounts Capital cost Operating cost Conventional Coal Basis MW.
COAL COMBUSTION AND POLLUTION CONTROL and Japan are currently utilizing SCR on coal-fired power plants. SCR technology is widely available for low-sulfur coal, but high capital costs and operations and maintenance costs have made it difficult to .While gasification is not a new process, the higher price in crude has lead operators and refineries to look at all possible coal-based technologies for energy conversion, and with the flow of.Underground Coal Gasification Best Practices in Underground Coal Gasification Elizabeth Burton Ravi Upadhye Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S.
Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No.